Ramadhan is the month in which we sent down the Quran as a guide to mankind, also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (between right and wrong). (Quran)
The Arabic word "Ramadhan" is a derived from "Ramadha" which means 'sunshine' and 'fierce hot' of the summer season in the Arabian deserts. It is the ninth month of the Islamic Hijra Calendar in the lunar system instead of the solar calendar. Lunar months have 29 or 30 days each and fall in the various different seasons through a solar year. And Muslims experience fasting in all seasons in a succession. Ramadhan, in the eyes of the Almighty Allah, is the special month in which the holy Quran was revealed and that is why He declared it a fasting month.
Although the holy Quran was revealed in parts (as per need) and it took a period of 23 years to complete, yet its first revelation occurred in this sacred month (Ramadhan). Initially, the first five verses of the Chapter "Al-Alaq" (the congealed blood) were revealed to the holy prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) while he was undertaking his contemplations in the cave of "Hira." According to some traditions of the holy Prophet, the whole of the holy Quran had been revealed from the "Tablet Preserved to the lower heaven in the sacred hours of "Lailatul Qadr" (the Night of Power) during a Ramadhan month. And then it was revealed to the holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). In order to commemorate revelation of the holy Quran in Ramadhan, the Almighty Allah fixed it as a month of fasting by all Muslims. The word of God is the book of guidance for mankind.
In the very beginning, the Almighty Allah, to highlight the significance of the month of Ramadhan tells that the Final Word of God, revelation of the holy Quran, started in this month. Then He describes three features of the holy Quran: (1) "Hudal-lin-nas" (guidance for mankind which means that the Quran is the source of guidance for the whole of mankind. Each and every human being is obliged to study the holy Quran to know the righteous path to achieve the Blessings of the Creator which is the ultimate Destination. Any source of guidance other than the holy Quran will, surely, be wrong and will lead astray. The holy Quran is the only source to lead to the road to success. In order to help human beings lead a life full of bliss and success as whole, the holy Quran has provided basic principles for each aspect of their life pointing towards the righteous path and the real goal point. (2): "bayyinatin-minal-huda" (the clear lights of guidance) which means that all the principles and basic laws have been explained very clearly and they have become easy to understand and to practice for everyone. The characteristic of clarity makes the Quranic basic laws and teachings easy to understand and practicable. Nothing is irrational; and no principle, impracticable. (3): "wal-furqan" (judgment between right and wrong) signifies the third virtue of the holy Quran, i.e. studying this holy book always improves human power of decision-making. They can judge truth from falsehood, right from wrong, Faith from Denial, fair from foul and obedience from arrogance. This improved power of judgment is the boon of the holy Quran available everyone who reads is it with devotion. A book with these three virtues rightly deserves to be followed in letter and spirit as it is message of life and bliss from Almighty God. Each and every commandment of the holy Quran is full of countless blessings and has logic and wisdom. Would that the Muslims try to reflect this Final Message of God and facilitate the other peoples of the world to understand it! If we fail to spread this Word of God, it will be a breach of trust. (And the month of Ramadhan affords a great opportunity for the Muslims to revive their faith, understand their duty to Allah Almighty and to the world in the light of the Message of the holy Quran).